12th ocm board question paper 2023 with solution
12th ocm board question paper 2023 with solution
Q.5) Answer in Brief. (Any TWO)
(1) Describe any four techniques of scientific management.
- Taylor’s management theory is based on scientific experiments. This theory involves the application of a scientific approach to decision-making and solving them at the same time. According to Taylor, problems should be solved by scientific techniques rather than the rule of thumb and a trial and error approach.
- F.W Taylor introduced this theory, therefore he is known as the “Father of Scientific Management”.
Definition of Scientific Management by Fredrick Taylor: “Scientific Management consists of knowing what you (i.e. management) want men to do exactly, and seeing it that they do it in the best and the cheapest manner.”
Techniques of Scientific Management are as follows:
- Standardization of Tools and Equipment: Standardized working environment and methods of production help to reduce loss and wastage of material, cost of production, and fatigue among the workers and it improves the quality of work.
- Scientific Task Setting: Taylor emphasized the need for fixing a fair day’s work (management should provide Scientific goals for every employee). By using this technique, employees will complete the task according to the standards given and management can keep proper control of optimum workforce utilization.
- Scientific Selection and Training: Scientific selection means selecting the right person for the right job by using scientific procedures. After selection, management should provide the proper training programmes to increase their efficiency
- Work Study: Work study consists of proper checking of various activities of the firm. Work-study is based on techniques such as time study, motion study, method study, and fatigue study.
- Time Study: It is the technique used for fixing the standard time required to do a particular task under a given condition. It is useful to measure the efficiency of an employee and to control the cost of work.
- Method Study: There is more than one way to do any task of the firm. It helps in reducing the wastage of time, and raw material and in improving the utility of all resources as per predefined objectives.
- Motion Study: It helps eliminate unnecessary motions and find the best method of doing a particular job. It also helps in improving the efficiency of the employees.
- Fatigue Study: The study of fatigue and steps to reduce the level of fatigue is very important to maintain the operational efficiency of the employees.
(2) Explain any four needs of consumer protection.
- Protecting the rights and interests of consumers is known as consumer protection. it includes all the measures that can protect consumer rights and interests.
- In a modern competitive market, the consumer is regarded as the King of the Market Consumers need protection for the following reasons:
- Need for the participation of consumers
- Lack of information
- Unorganised consumers
- Spurious goods
- Misleading advertising
- Malpractices of businessman
- Lack of information: The wider gap between consumer and manufacturer makes it difficult to get all knowledge about the product they are purchasing from any business therefore to get the correct knowledge consumer protection is needed.
- Ignorance: Most consumers are unaware of their rights, price, product details, etc. Therefore consumer protection is needed to protect them from unethical malpractices.
- Misleading Advertising: The wrong advertisements provide wrong information about the quality, safety, and utility of products. Consumers don’t get any idea about the reality of the product and feel cheated, therefore there is a need for consumer protection.
- Malpractices of Businessmen: Businessmen use unethical Fraudulent and monopolistic trade practices to make profits that exploit the consumers. This is another reason for consumer protection.
- Need for the participation of consumers: Businesses often make decisions without consulting the consumer or their organizations which affects the consumers’ interest. Only a strong consumer organization can pressure business organizations to allow consumer participation in the decision-making process.
- Trusteeship: According to Gandhian philosophy businessmen are trustees of the society’s wealth. Therefore, they should use this wealth for the benefit of people.
(3) Explain any four functions of marketing.
- Marketing is a key function of modern management. The success of any business is difficult without marketing. It deals with the exchange of goods and services.
“Activities, benefits, or satisfactions which are offered for sale, or provided in connection with the sale of goods”.- American Marketing Association
Functions of Marketing:
- Marketing Research: Marketing research refers to collecting information regarding all the market factors which includes market conditions, consumers’ preferences, competition, etc. which helps businesses to get a competitive advantage and knowledge about market needs.
- Marketing Planning: After knowing market needs firms have to decide their suitable planning to fulfill those needs which ultimately provides profit to the firm. It is a road map to do the firm’s activity properly.
- Product Development: It means to make the product or to improve the product of the firm in a way that satisfies the market needs. Product improvisation is related to quality, design, shape, etc. Which makes the product attractive and better for the consumers.
- Packaging and Labelling: Package and Label create the first impression on the consumer about the product. Attractive packaging attracts consumers and good labeling provides the right information about the product.
- Branding: Branding is a process of giving a special identity to the product through a unique name, logo, or tagline. This different name or logo makes the product easy to identify by the consumers. This name also helps to increase the brand awareness.
- Promotional Channels: Promotion means to create awareness about the product in the market. It informs consumers about the features, uses, prices, etc. Advertising, Publicity, Sales Promotion, etc. are some tools of promotions.
- Distribution: Distribution is the set of the movement from the place of production to the consumer. It includes transportation, warehousing, Packaging, etc. It includes a large amount of business budget.
- Transportation: Transportation means the physical movement of goods from the place of production to the place of consumption. It includes the transportation of finished goods as well as raw materials. Place utility is created by transportation. Road, Air, Water, etc. are the modes of transportation.
Q.6) Justify the following statements (Any TWO)
(1) Controlling is the last function of management.
- Controlling is a function of comparing actual performance with the pre decided standard performance. It also helps in the formulation of future plans.
- Controlling is the last function of the management process where the performance of the organisation is measured and compared with the planned performance, steps are taken to make corrections and improvements, and corrective actions are taken.
- It acts as a guide, because Controlling provides set of standard performance which is already decided. Managers and other employees has to do their work accordingly.
- If the firm is doing there work as per controlling function it means they can achieve their goals efficiently.
- The effectiveness of the planning functions can be determined with the function of controlling. Planning and controlling are the major parts of managements.
- Therefore Controlling is the last function of the management.
(4) Consumers have many responsibilities.
Ans) Consumers should exercise their rights and responsibilities while purchasing products or services. These are as follows:
- Cautious consumer: The consumers should understand their responsibilities while buying goods and services. While buying, the consumer should enquire about the quality, quantity, price, etc.
- Filing of complaints: As responsible consumers, we should make a complaint if they are not satisfied with the product. If they ignore these complaints, it encourages the businesses to do their unethical practices.
- Demand of Invoice and Guarantee, Warrantee Card: Consumers should always ask for Bills as a valid document for settlements. The mentioned information is given in guarantee and Warrantee cards also play an important role in any disputes.
- Pre-Planned Buying: Pre-planned buying means consumers always decide in advance about which product they are going to purchase in terms of quantity, quality, and price. They should not be in a hurry, because it leads to exploitation from the seller.
- Quality conscious: Consumers should not compromise on the quality of the product just because of getting less quality products at a lesser price which can be harmful to them. for the quality check, they can see certain symbols of the quality products like ISI, Hallmark, etc.
Q. 7. Attempt the following (Any TWO) :
(1) Explain the nature of the principle of management.
Ans) Management principles are formed as guidelines to provide a roadmap to the business for efficiently doing their activities.
Nature of Principle of Management:
- Universal Applicable: These principles are universal which means it applied everywhere in every organization whether they are small or big. These provide proper guidelines for every business.
- Flexibility: Principles or management are flexible. It means we can adopt and apply any principles as per the need of situation which is helpful to achieve our desired goals.
- Cause and effect relationship: Principles of management are the base of making any decision. If we apply these principles properly, we will get our results properly, therefore there is a direct relationship between successfully applied principles and successful results.
- General guidelines: These principles provide proper guidance to every firm for doing their activities properly. It provides solutions to every problem of the firm as it is made by lots of practices and experiments.
- All principles are equally important: All principles of management are equally important for the success of any firm. It means if as a firm we just focused on any specific principle and ignored other ones we can’t get our results properly.
(2) State money remittance services and retail services of the postal department.
Money Remittance Services:
- Electronic Money Transfer: It includes sending money by electronic mode which makes the faster movement of money. It also ensures the safety of the money.
- Instant Money Order: India Post presents instant money order (IMO), from the name we can conclude that it is the instant payment of money which is convenient, reliable, and affordable. It is a web-based online transaction of money.
- International Money Transfer: This money transfer scheme is a quick and easy way to transfer money from abroad to India. From India to transferring money abroad is not included here.
- Retail Services: A)Retail Post: Under this a range of services are provided to the general public like a collection of electricity bills, collection of taxes or other bills, etc. b)E-post: The Department of Posts has introduced ePOST service. This is sending messages by customers through electronic modes.
(3) Explain the social responsibilities of commercial organisation towards consumers.
Ans) Businesses cannot work without consumers. The survival and growth of any business depend upon its number of customers.
Responsibilities towards consumers:
- Good quality Products: Organisations should provide quality products to their customers which means the products that do not harm their users. If firms sell cheap products that means they are exploiting their customers.
- Fair prices: The consumers should not be cheated by charging higher prices for any product. If firms charge fair prices, then they make loyal customer side for them.
- Customer’s Safety: Firms must ensure customer safety which means they should provide products that are not harmful to their life and health.
- After-sale services: Consumers should get after-sales services for their betterment by the firms. This includes a warranty and guarantees as well. This means that after a fixed period, goods can be repairable or replaceable.
- Honest Advertisements: Firms should disclose their product honestly in terms of their quality, side effects, uses, price, etc.
Q.8.Answer the following (Any ONE) :
(1) What is Road Transport? Explain the advantages and disadvantages of Road Transport.
- Road are means that connect people and places on the surface of the land. It provide more connectivity as compared to other modes of transport. Various means of transport are used under road transport like car, cycle, buses, bikes etc.
- Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems have been introduced in many states to improve public transport system in India. India has a network of village roads, district roads, state highways and national highways which form the economic backbone of the country.
- In India, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH) looks after development of surface transport throughout the country.
Advantages of Road Transport
- Door to door services: Road transport provides door to door services. The goods can collects from seller warehouse and deliver it right at the door step of the buyer.
- Suitable for short distance: – The road transport suitable for short distance. The loading and unloading charges are reduced due to direct transportation.
- Less expensive: It is less expensive from other mode of transportation because the maintenance cost is very low and the wages for drivers are low as compare to railways.
- Flexibility: – the road transport offers more flexibility than railways. The road transport can operate at any time as per the client requirement.
- Low investment: – Road transport requires low investment. The vehicles, trucks and tempos cost very less as compared to train and ships and airplanes.
Disadvantages of Road Transport
- Not suitable for bulky goods: The Road transport is not suitable for carry bulky and heavy goods, such as heavy machinery.
- Not suitable for long distance: Road transport is not suitable for long distances for carry the goods.
- Limited protection of goods: Road transport provide limited protection to goods from rain, sun etc.
- Less reliable during monsoons: The road transport is less reliable during the monsoons because of poor condition of roads.
- More accident: there are number of accidents on the highway and on other roads due to poor condition of road or careless of drivers.
(2) Explain importance of Marketing to the society and consumers.
- Marketing is a key function of modern management. In the absence of marketing, many firms would fail to exist. It deals with exchange of goods and services.
- The prime object of production is to distribute goods and services by using effective marketing.
Business could have the most amazing products or services, but if no one knows it exists then business will not be able to sell it. There is a need to use marketing to promote business. Without marketing, it is difficult to reach the potential customers.
A) Importance of Marketing to the society:
- Increase in Standard of Living: The main objective of marketing is to provide goods and services to the customers to satisfy their needs. Marketing helps to identify the needs of the customers and also increase the standard of living. It involves recognizing customer needs and taking steps to provide high-quality goods at affordable prices. This, in turn, contributes to enhancing and sustaining the living standards of customers.
- Provide Employment: Marketing involves various activities such as selling, financing, research and development, transport etc. which provides Employment to the society. To run this system there is a need of people. Thus, marketing gives job opportunities to the people.
- Increase in National income: Marketing helps to boost the economy of any nation. It helps business to make profits and also provides employment which helps in increasing national income growth. Effective marketing of products and services result into industrialization, more job and makes the economy stronger and stable. Marketing can bring about rapid development of the country by integration of agriculture and industry.
- Consumer Awareness: Marketing helps society by informing and educating consumers. The function of marketing
is to fulfill the needs of the consumers. Marketing satisfies society by supplying relevant information, goods, and services to the people of society according to their demands and tastes. Marketing can also include more practical information to assist in making a purchase, such as addresses, phone numbers, product release dates, store hours, and Web addresses.
B)Importance to the consumers:
- Promotes Product Awareness: Through different marketing activities companies promote their products and services. This helps consumers to know about different products and services available in the market. It helps the consumer in making buying decision. Consumer can compare product features, price, availability and other essentials because of marketing. Marketing helps to improve the quality of life of the consumer.
- Provides Quality products: Now-a-days it is very easy for customers to get all information about any product and also there is a high competition in the market which force firms to supply quality products for their survival.
- Provides variety of products: In today’s market there are different consumers have their different taste and like, dislikes, therefore it is very essential for firms to provide different products. Marketing plays a dual role by not only creating awareness about a product among consumers but also attracting them to make a purchase.
- Consumer Satisfaction: Marketing leads to consumer satisfaction through honest advertising, assurance of quality products and availability of innovative products. Thus, marketing takes every effort to satisfy the consumer.
- Helps in selection: Variety of products with different brands are available in the competitive markets. Marketing helps the consumer to choose the best products and services from the different options available.