Q.1 Explain the causes and consequence of the declining gender ratio in India
Male domination: The majority of the places in India follow the patriarchal system. In India, males are considered to be the only bread earners. The methods of sex determination and female foeticide are adopted which is the main reason for the declining number of females, especially in North India.
Infant and Maternal Mortality: Infant mortality rate is the number of death of babies before the age of one. Due to female foeticide, the sex ratio declines terribly. Maternal mortality also contributes to the declining sex ratio as most of the women die during childbirth due to improper care and fewer facilities.
Poverty: Poverty is one of the factors which is responsible for the declining sex ratio. States like Tamil Nadu have a high sex ratio but the poverty rate is low. There are states wherein due to poverty, a lot of girls are denied nutritious food. This deprives the women and girl child of a living a healthy life.
Social status of women: In most parts of India, women are merely considered as an object. People are worried about the dowry issue with the birth of a girl child. Due to financial problem, most of the families in rural areas prefer a male child over the female
Lack of empowerment of women: There is a lack of empowerment of women especially in rural areas. Women do not enjoy opportunities as men do. Due to a lack of education, women are unable to establish their roles in many places. The state of Uttar Pradesh has become like a grave for girls.
Malnutrition of Female: Due to male dominance preference for providing good food to male members affect the health of females, which leads to the death of females and result in declining gender ratio.
Q.2 What are the Types and Forms of Violence against Women in India:
Sexual Harassment: Half of the total number of crimes against women reported in 1990 related to molestation and harassment at the workplace. Eve teasing is a euphemism used for sexual harassment or molestation of women by men many activists blame the rising incidents of sexual harassment against women on the influence of “Western culture”.
Dowry: In 1961, the government of India passed the Dowry Prohibition Act, making the dowry demands in wedding arrangements illegal. However, many cases of dowry-related domestic violence, suicides, and murders have been reported. The term for this is “bride burning” and it’s criticized within India itself.
Child Marriage: Child marriage has been traditionally prevalent in India and continues to this day. Historically, young girls would live with their parents till they reached puberty. In the past, the child widows were condemned to a life of great agony, shaving heads, living in isolation, and shunned by society. Although child marriage was outlawed in 1860, it is still a common practice.
Female Infanticides and Sex-Selective Abortions: India has a highly masculine sex ratio, the chief reason being that many women die before reaching adulthood. It is therefore suggested by many experts, that the highly masculine sex ratio in India can be attributed to female infanticides and sex-selective abortions. The abuse of the dowry tradition has been one of the main reasons for sex-selective abortions and female infanticides in India.
Domestic Violence: Domestic violence includes harassment, maltreatment, brutality, or cruelty, and even the threat of assault-intimidation. Violence against women is a serious problem in India. Overall, one-third of women age 15-49 have experienced physical violence and about 1 in 10 have experienced sexual violence. Married women are more likely to experience physical or sexual violence by husbands.
Trafficking: The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act was passed in 1956. However many cases of trafficking of young girls and women have been reported. These women are either forced into prostitution, domestic work, or child labour.
Eve- Teasing: Eve teasing is a typical social crime. It is the sexual harassment or molestation of women by men.
Rape: Sexual harassment, sexual violence (including rape), physical and psychological abuse at the hands of intimate partners, forced marriage, and forced sterilization are all deeply traumatizing acts of violence. The overwhelming majority of victims are women, who also suffer female genital mutilation and forced abortion. The cruel and degrading behavior that women experience is shocking. If we consider that men carry out most violence, it is just a small step to understanding that violence against women is structural violence – violence that is used to sustain male power and control.
Acid attacks: At times, acids such as sulfuric acid have been used to disfigure or kill women and girls for reasons such as family feuds, inability to meet dowry demands, and for rejection of marriage proposals.
Q.3 What are the various Socio-Economic problem faced by women in India? Concept of disparity
Low Status of Women: the women in India are still given secondary status in most of the communities. The literacy rate is low Abortion of female fetus Practice of sati Malnutrition to girl’s child
The problem of illiteracy: the overall literacy in India has improved. As per census 2011 literacy rate improved by 74%. In certain states such as Rajasthan, UP, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa literacy is very low.
Violence against Women: Women are subject to violence and harassment inside and outside their household. Increasing Rape and sexual abuse in India and dowry cases in rural areas. Wife Battering: Wife battering refers to violent acts—psychological, sexual, and physical assault—by the husband to his wife and or partner made with the intent of controlling the partner by inducing fear and pain. Wife battering is quite common in India.
Female Foeticide: It is defined as aborting a female fetus after a sex determination test (Female). Causes of the female fetus due Fear of dowry by many poor class families, Girls are considered as a financial obligation by many parents, Advancement in technology, nowadays parent determines the sex of a child before birth, Some of the doctors do this heinous act to fulfill their money desire.
Woes of Widows: The widows face a number of problems in Indian Society. They abused by other male members in her-in- laws family, widows are not permitted to attained wedding and birth ceremonies. There is also a restriction on her clothing.
The problem at the workplace: The women workforce in office and in industries is increasing due to the increase in educational standards of women in an urban area but women employees face many problems at the workplace such as sexual harassment at workplace, inequality in wages, and lack of opportunity for advancement.
The problem of single-parent families: Some of the common problems faced by single parents include A lonely parent may cling to their children for support and company, making it harder for the child to eventually leave home. The demands of income earning, child-raising and housework mean the single parent may have little or no time for themselves.
Limited Participation in Politics: Women do not find an effective representative in politics at the central and state Government level. Also, the elected women representative are not much concerned to raise issues relating to women’s problems in the legislature. This may be due to the lack of effective support from male elected representatives.
Q.4 Explain solution to socio-economics problems of women in India
Education to Women: The Government should give priority to women’s education in India. At present, education for girls is free up to the 12th standard. In some states, a girl’s education is free up to graduation.
Social Awareness Campaigns: There should be effective social awareness campaigns promoting the cause of women. The negative effect of social discrimination against women must be highlighted in campaigns. A campaign like Anti-dowry, widow Marriage, anti-child Marriage, etc.
Simplification of legal Procedure: The legal procedures relating to women’s complaints must simplify so that women should not find difficulty in filing complaints against maltreatment or harassment.
Effective Role of Police force: The Police force should play a positive role in handling women related case. The police officers should show empathy for women who are victimized. They should encourage women to file appropriate complaints against harassment. The Government should also recruit women in police.
Strict Adherence to Legislations: -There should be strict adherence to various legislation and Constitutional safeguards. Anyone found guilty must effectively be punished including life imprisonment or death sentence in certain cases. Effective punishment leads to decrease violation against women.
Support from Religious Leaders: The religious leaders too can play an important role in the upliftment of women in society. The support of religious leaders would definitely help in improving women’s status in India, as the majority of Indians do religiously follow the preaching of their religious leaders.
Special Encouragement for Women Achievers: The Government and social organizations should provide special encouragement for women achievers. The women who have excelled in various fields must be felicitated on regular basis by providing special awards and incentives. Such felicitations would encourage other women to undertake or participate in certain activities.
Positive Approach at Work Place: The employers and male colleagues should adopt a positive approach towards women at the workplace. They should believe in teamwork. Wherever possible, women employees must be given credit for their services including promotion.
Effective Role of NGOs: The NGOs can also play a leading role in uplifting the status of women in India. They should take up the women related issues at various forums. They should assist the victimized women and support them during the crisis.
Effective Women Representation in the Legislature: There must be effective women representatives in the legislature both at the Center and at the State Government level. For this purpose, the Women Reservation Bill must be given priority and adopted both at the Centre and at the State Level through suitable amendments in the Constitution of India.
Blindness is strictly defined as the state of being totally sightless in both eyes. A completely blind individual is unable to see at all.
Blindness is the inability to see anything, even light. If you’re partially blind, you have limited vision. For example, you may have blurry vision or the inability to distinguish the shapes of objects. Complete blindness means that you can’t see at all and are in total darkness. Legal blindness refers to a vision that’s highly compromised. What a person with healthy eyes can see from 200 feet away a legally blind person can see only from 20 feet away.
Glaucoma is an eye condition that damages your optic nerve. Learn what causes it. Cataract: A cataract is a dense, cloudy area that forms in the lens of the eye. It develops slowly and eventually interferes with your vision.
A head injury is an injury to your brain, skull, or scalp. This can range from a mild bump or bruise to a traumatic brain injury. Common head injuries include concussions,
River blindness (onchocerciasis) is a parasitic disease that causes inflammation and bleeding that leads ultimately to blindness and other disabling effects. River blindness is on the retreat worldwide thanks to the widespread distribution of the drug Mectizan.
Trachoma is the most widespread infectious cause of blindness, responsible for the visual impairment or blindness of about 1.9 million people. Repeated infections with the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis cause the inside of the eyelid to scar, turn inward, and painfully scratch the cornea, eventually leading to irreversible blindness.
Orthopedically (Physical) handicapped
Locomotors Disability means disability of the bones, joints, or muscles leading to substantial restriction of movement of the limbs or any form of cerebral palsy.
Hereditary -conditions that are passed from parents to a child.
Developmental – embryological defects in the fetus.
Birth Period – abnormalities that occur in prenatal (before birth) or perinatal period (during birth)
Cerebral Palsy – is due to injury or lack of development of the brain which results in motor disability.
Poliomyelitis – This condition is due to a virus that attacks the spinal cord of the infant making him paralyzed.
Spina Bifida – Condition in which nerves protrude due to non-closure of the spine. It affects the lower part of the vertebral column. Accidents such as fractures, burns, amputations are also included in this category.
A mental disorder also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Concept of disparity, Types and Forms of Violence against Women in India, various Socio-Economic problem faced by women in India, solution to socio-economics problems of women in India, causes and consequence of the declining gender ratio in India.