Social Infrastructure: Business Economics

Social Infrastructure

  • Social infrastructure refers to the creation and maintenance of facilities and structures that support the delivery of social services to the people. It consists of facilities, places, programmes, policies, improves the standard of living quality of life of people. Social infrastructure includes education, healthcare, and family welfare.

Social Infrastructure

Discuss the role of social infrastructure related to health

  • Social infrastructure refers to the creation and maintenance of facilities and structures that support the delivery of social services to the people. It consists of facilities, places, programmes, policies, improves the standard of living quality of life of people. Social infrastructure includes education, healthcare, and family welfare.
  • There are two aspects to public healthcare: (a) Public Healthcare infrastructure and (b) Health policy and programmes.

Public Healthcare infrastructure

  1. Primary level: At this level, healthcare is provided by the Sub Centers and Primary Health Centers (PHC). Sub Centers are located in underdeveloped and remote rural areas covering a population of 3000 to 5000 population and providing basic healthcare and educate healthy living. PHC exists in a large village with a population between 20000 to 30000. These are the clinics with doctors and paramedics.
  2. Secondary level: At this level, there are Community Health Centers (CHC) and District Hospitals (SH). CHC is primarily in semi-urban areas covering between 80000 to 120000 people they are entirely funded by the state government. SH treats the patient referred by the lower-level health centers. They provide comprehensive secondary healthcare services and have beds ranging between 100 and 500.
  3. Tertiary level health infrastructure at this level includes all Indian institutes of medical science and medical College and hospitals. All India Institute of Medical Science (AIIMS) are specialized hospitals under the central government they are the countries primer medical research institute. Medical colleges and hospitals are stated government-owned and founded they play a very significant role in providing general and specialized health services.
  4. Indian Public Health Standard (IPHS) was published in 2007 to provide a reference point for the functioning of SCs, PHCs, CHCs DHs. IPHS is a set of uniform standards that should be followed by the health centers and hospitals to make public health service more effectively. The standards are revised from time to time.

(b) Public health programs and policies

  1. National Health Mission (NHM) was launched in 2013 with the aim of providing universal access to equitable, affordable, and quality health service through the health care infrastructure. The NHM include the National Rural Health Mission and the National Urban Health Mission.
  2. Poor Patient Financial Support: Rashtriya Arogya Nidhi (RAN) was set up in 1997 to provide financial support to the patient who is below the poverty line and are suffering from the major life-threatening diseases like cancer, cardio vascular disease, kidney disease, etc. Financial assistance to such patients is released in the form of a one-time grant given to the hospital where the patient is undergoing treatment.
  3. Pradhan Mantri Swsthya Suraksha Yojana (PMSSY): The PMSSY was announced in 2003 with the objective of correcting the regional imbalance in public health infrastructure and improve the quality of medical education by setting up new AIIMS and upgrading Government medical College in Phases.
  4. Rashtryia Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) The RSBY was launched in 2008 to provide social health security to the worker in the unorganised sector. It was initially designed to provide health insurance coverage to the below poverty line worker, but now the coverage has been expanded it covers construction workers, Street vendors, MNREAGA workers, etc.
  5. National Health Policy 2017: The policy was announced with the goal of achieving the highest possible level of well-being for all ages, disease prevention, and universal access to healthcare.
  6. Communicable Disease Programmes to control communicable disease is important for the developing country, as the poor living conditions can spread this disease rapidly. The ministry of health and family welfare implemented programs like HIV AIDS programmes through the department of AIDS controls. The program includes training of the staff, guidelines for testing and treatment, and providing counseling support.
  7. Non-Communicable Disease Injury and Trauma Programmes: The ministry of health and family welfare implemented programs like National oral health programmes, National Mental Health programmes, National Programmes for prevention and control of deafness, National Programmes for control of blindness, etc.
  8. National Programmes for Healthcare of the Elderly (NPHE) The NPHE was launched in 2010 to address the various health-related issue of the elderly population. With the increase in life expectancy, the proportion of the elderly population to the total population is increasing. Many of the elderly population belong to the low-income category with little or no financial support.
  9. Reproductive Maternal, Newborn, Child, and Adolescent Health (RMNCH+A): India become the first country in the world to launch the National Family Planning Programmes(NFPP) in 1952. The main focus of the program was to lower the fertility rate and slow population growth. In the initial, the family planning programs was spread from the National Health Programmes (NHP). Later NFPP was integrated with the NHP and begins to know as the family welfare programmes. Today the family welfare programs are not just restricted to the family planning for population control but include the measures that help the maternal and child care and nutrition programs.

Explain the role of social infrastructure related to Education.

  • Social infrastructure refers to the creation and maintenance of facilities and structures that support the delivery of social services to the people. It consists of facilities, places, programmes, policies, improves the standard of living quality of life of people. Social infrastructure includes education, healthcare, and family welfare.
  • Education is the most crucial investment in human development education is universally recognized as a central component of human capital. The young population of India, if well equipped with education and skill can contribute effectively to the development of the economy

Government policy measures to promote education.

  1. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA)/ Right to Education(RTE) for all children between the age of 6 and 14 years has been made a fundamental rights under the RTE act 2009the act Max it mandatory that every child has right to elementary education of satisfactory and equipment quality in the formal schools which satisfied search certain essential norms and standards.
  2. National Programmes for Education of Girls at Elementary Level: This program was approved in July 2003. Its main objective is to provide support for the education of underprivileged/disadvantaged girls at the elementary level. These programmes provide for setting up model schools in every cluster with more intensive community mobilization and supervision of girl’s enrollment in school.
  3. Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalay: This scheme was launched in July 2004 to set up residential schools at the elementary level for the girls belonging to the SC, ST, OBC, and minorities. It was implemented in educationally backward blocks where rural female literacy is below 30% and in a selected urban area where female literacy is below the national average.
  4. National Programme of Mid-Day Meals in Schools: It makes a provision for providing cooked meals to the children studying in government, the government-aided and local body schools. It has played a major role in increasing school enrollment and school attendance.
  5. Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan: It is certainly a sponsored scheme of MHRD launched in March 2009 to improve access to secondary education and to improve its quality. The objective of the scheme is to be achieved an enrollment ratio of 75% for class 9th and 12th within 5 years and to improve the quality of education at the secondary level.
  6. Inclusive Education for the Disabled at Secondary Stage: This scheme was launched in 2009-10 replacing the earlier Scheme of Integrated Education for Disabled Children(IEDC). It provides central assistance for inclusive education of disabled children studying in class 11th-12th in government local body and government-aided schools.
  7. Model School Scheme: A scheme for setting up 6000 model schools as benchmarks of excellence at a block-level with one school per block was launched in November 2008. It aims to provide quality education to talented rural children.
  8. Sarkar Bharat Adult Education: The National Literacy Mission (NLM) was recast as Saakshar Bharat(SB). Saakshar Bharat was launched on 8 September 2019. The main programme of NLM Total Literacy Campaign to provide basic literacy to the non-literates, Post Literacy Programme for the reinforcement of the literacy skills to the non-literates, and Continuing Education Programmes to provide the facility for life long education to the community at large.
  9. Higher and Technical Education: Higher and technical education includes graduates, postgraduate, doctorate degree courses in the broad streams of the Arts, Science, Commerce, Law, Technology, Medicals, and Pharmacy. A country that aims at higher economic and social achievements must invest heavily in higher and technical education such investment will lead to the creation of a knowledge based economy.
  10. Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan: RUSA is a certainly sponsored scheme launch in 2013 that aims at providing funding to eligible state higher educational institutes. RUSA would create new universities through upgradation of existing autonomous colleges in a cluster, create new model degree colleges, new professional colleges, and providing infrastructure support to the universities and colleges. It objective improving the faculty quality, research output, innovation in education, capacity building in higher education, and reforms educational institute.

What is social Infrastructure? discuss the importance of social infrastructure.

Social Infrastructure, social infrastructure meaning, the importance of social infrastructure, the role of social infrastructure related to Education, the role of social infrastructure related to health For More Business Economic Notes Click Here

Reference: Smart Notes, Manan Prakashan

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