Causes and Effects of Migration: Types of Migration
Causes and effects of migration
- Migration means the movement or shift of people from one place to another.
- The moment may be from one locality reason City or village country to another locality reason City village or country.
- Globalization has resulted in an easy moment for people within and across the national borders.
Types of migration
- Local migration involves the movement of people from one locality to another locality
- Rural to Urban migration involvement of people from rural areas to city such migration is more common in developing countries due to industrialization
- Urban to rural migration is in malls moment of people from urban areas to rural areas such migration is more common in developed countries due to the higher cost of urban living.
- Mass migration refers to the moment of a large group of people from one geographical area to another
- Forced migration refers to the coerced movement of people away from their home it often cannot violent coercion and may be called is force-displacement.
Causes of migration
- Economic factor: Employment and poverty can force people to migrate from one place to another place. Generally, ruler people migrate to cities in search of employment opportunities.
- Social factor: Migration may also take place due to social factors such as family marriage children etc. In our Indian society, the girls after the marriage have to decide at the residence of the bridegroom does she has to migrate from her place of residence to the place of president of her husband.
- Environmental factors: Natural disasters such as floods, famines, droughts, earthquakes, etc. may compel people to migrate to a safer place for example tsunami in the southern part of India forced surviving homeless people to migrate to the other part of the country.
- Medical reasons: Some people migrate for the reasons of better medical and health care. Some people may experience poor health conditions as the climate of the region may not suit them. Some cities may have High pollution levels and hence may not permit people with poor health to stay in society such people migrate to other cities having low pollution levels and where proper healthcare is possible.
- Political factors: When migration takes place mainly due to political interests, it is called political migration. Political instability communalism, regionalism, linguism, inter-caste and inter-religion rivalries, riots, terrorism, etc. create conflict and violence in the cities and state. thus political fear may motivate a person to migrate to a place where there are proper law and order situations.
Effects of migration can be explained as follows
- Brain drain: There has been a migration of Indian professional academicians, scientists, Engineers, etc. to foreign countries such as America Canada England, etc. The talent knowledge skills of such migrants contribute to the economic development of the host country does deprive our country of their skills and services which can be used to grow of development of our own country does phenomenal called as Brain drain.
- Foreign exchange reserve: People migrate from one country to another country for employment. Employment in foreign countries enabled them to earn foreign currencies. The migrant can benefit the home country by sending the remittance to their family this helps the home country to a valuable foreign exchange reserve.
- The fusion of cultures: Migration of people from one country to another country or one region to another reason or one from one city to another city involve different cultures. Differences in cultures would be more prominent in the case of international migration. Migration may cause the exchange and interaction of cultural traits such as food, habits, language, dressing pattern, etc. Migration may result in a change in lifestyle and the personality of the migrant.
- Social problems: Continuous inflow of migrants to the particular city, region, state, or country result in serious socio-economic problems such as the growth of slums, increasing crime rates, the spread of diseases, social evils like alcoholism drugs addiction, etc.
- Psychological problem People migrate to different places leave behind their families relatives friends and acquaintances. hence, they may feel lonely isolated, and homesick. Some people may also experience feelings of insecurity due to the new and different environment some migrants feel the pressure of new jobs new accommodations new relationships etc.
- Hostilities toward migrants: Quite often, the migrant has to face hostilities from local people. The local people may not treat them well and may even harm their life and property. There are a number of cases where migrants arrest and torture even in their own country.
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Reference: ML Jhingan, Manan Prakashan,