Caste System: In Indian Villages, the caste system is widespread. Each village has several cast, although in some villages a particular caste dominates.
Intimate Relations: In Indian villages, there is face to face relations among the people. Generally, every person knows each other in the village. This is because; the village population is of small size, and therefore personal contact or relations can b maintained through regular interactions.
Status of women: The rural women mostly engage in indoor activates and they work in the field as well. They are very much attached to their family members. Women adjust themselves to the family conditions, ad make sacrifices in the interest of the family.
Occupation: Rural people are mostly engaged in agriculture. About 80% of village people are directly or indirectly connected with agriculture and other related areas.
Size of the Population: The majority of India’s population lives in villages. As per the 2011 census, 68.84% of India’s total population
Location Pattern:The rural population lives in about 6,41,000 villages. At present, only about 4000 villages have a population of 10,000 plus. In 2,36,000 villages, the population is less than 500 persons.
Literacy: The literacy level of rural people is low as compared to the urban population. The rural literacy rate is less than 50% in many states due to lack of education facilities in villages and poverty among the rural masses.
Poverty: 25.70% of people living below the poverty line in rural areas. Rural poverty is very high, especially in the state of Orissa, Bihar ad Madhya Pradesh. The main causes of rural poverty are the High growth of the population.
Media Exposure: The media exposure of rural masses is comparatively low as compared to urban areas due to poverty and lack of education.
Characteristic of Urban Area
Heterogeneity: The urban population is heterogeneous. It consists of various shades of people—different castes, classes, ethnic groups, religions, etc. They are not all alike. The urban community is noteworthy for its diversity.
Social Mobility: Urban people are socially mobile as compared to rural folk. Social mobility refers to the movement of people from one social status to another, i.e. from lower-status to higher status in society.
Secondary relations: In urban social life, relations are not intimate. Most routine social contacts in the city are impersonal. Formal politeness takes the place of genuine friendliness. The impersonality of urban life is a necessary and convenient way of urban living.
Occupation: In urban areas, the major occupations are industrial, administrative, and professional in nature. Divisions of labour and occupational specialization are very much common in towns/cities/metropolises.
Literacy: The literacy rate of urban areas is high as compared to rural areas. Most of the major cities/towns have a literacy rate of over 70%.
Media Exposure: The media exposure of urban are is high as compared to rural areas. Most of the urban population is exposed to radio, TV, and the internet.
Poverty: The poverty in an urban area is low as compared to rural areas. 13.70% of people living below the poverty line in urban areas. Urban poverty due to unemployment, gambling, large size families.